Thursday, March 19, 2020

Relationship Management Essays

Relationship Management Essays Relationship Management Essay Relationship Management Essay 1.0 IntroductionCustomer Relationship Management is a management process, which enables organisations to identify, attract and increase the retention of customers by managing customer relationships.This report will be investigating in to the application of the frequent flyer programme, a CRM based database and the related strategies in the Airline sector.Free flight programmes give airlines customer loyalty by knowing who their customers are, through the use of database marketing. It is a key part of CRM strategy ensuring near-term survival and medium and long term revival for airlines.(Siebel 2005a)The report will concentrate on, BA airlines, Virgin Atlantic and the growing BMI company, UKs three key players in the fragmented airline industry. This is due to the variety of market segments their serve to, competing against increased competition, decreased product differentiation, demand and loyalty, with increased price pressures.(Siebel 2005a)2.0 Market OverviewAir travel represents a minor mode of transport for UK travel and tourism industry. (Euromonitor, Sept 2005a)Air transport sales amounted to à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½9 billion in 2004 (Euromonitor, May 2005a)According to Euromonitor (May 2005b) it is the preferred mode of arrival in the UK accounting for 73% in 2004. It held the largest share of departures at 76% in 2004, with a significant rise of 26% over four years. (Euromonitor, May 2005c)British Airways (BA) is the dominant UK airline; its share by turnover was 52% in 2004 against 54% in 2003. This decline in shares is to the low-cost carriers, who are continuing to grow their share, such as EasyJet and Ryanair. Both airlines hold 16% of the market share between them. (Euromonitor, May 2005d)The second largest operator in the UK is Virgin Atlantic which has increased the value of shares from 10% in 2001 to around 17% by 2004, due to continued investment in new airlines and products. (Euromonitor, May 2005d)British Midland, BMI, holds 5% of the UK airline value and operates over 2,000 flights per week mainly in Europe in addition to their budget flights with the bmibaby brand.(Euromonitor, May 2005d)Sales forecast have shown that the Transport industry will grow by 14% in constant value terms by 2009. Air will remain the preferred inbound mode of transport and account for an estimated 79% of total sales value in 2009.It is believed that Air Travel will particularly benefit from the growth of internet sales, which will grow by 105% during the forecast period, which is 38% of overall transportation sales in 2009.(Euromonitor, May 2005e)3.0 Analysis and DiscussionThe Frequent Flyer Programme (FFP) is a common CRM strategy used in the airline industry, with BA, Virgin Atlantic and BMI owning a database reflecting the same principles of the FFP.The aim of the FFP is to:1 Increase Operational Efficiency2 Identify and Acquire Profitable Customers3 Maximise Customer Loyalty4 Optimise Sales Performance(Siebel, 2005a)In general, Airlines are increas ingly giving greater importance and priority to CRM and looking for loyalty solutions.1Database Marketing works closely with the FFP team who manage and maintain the customer database, as well as being used to run precisely targeted campaigns and promotions and produce management reports on consumer by tracking track the mileage of the airlines frequent flyers. (Virgin Atlantic, 2006a)CRM activities of BA, Virgin Atlantic and BMI follow the principles of the architecture model shown over the page.(Siebel, 2005b)4.0 Frequent Flyer Programmes4.1 BackgroundBAs FFP is called the Executive Club, consisting of three tiers, known as theBlue, Silver and Gold Tier, which reflects the customers buying patterns.Customers are banded in to a particular tier according to their score on RFV2; high scorers enter the higher tier and receive greater benefits in return. (British Airways, 2006a)The Flying Club is the name of Virgin Atlantics FFP, which consists of the Red, Silver and Gold levels, where new members are given a red card and the status increases to silver and gold, as their RFV score increases. (Virgin Atlantic, 2006b)BMI customers join the Diamond Club (FFP) there are no tiers due to they switch to a single class service.3 (bmi, 2006a)All three airlines have marketing partners within the travel and tourism industry; please view Appendix 6-8 for the details.The implementation of CRM begins with the data mart/warehouse which is used to collate information via queries, testing customer communications and other means of output. The third stage includes the customer service interface which includes elements such as reservations and customer service and the fourth stage the use of tailored touchpoints. (AAI, 2001b)5.0 The use of data warehouse/data marts and software solutionsThe CRM strategy helps to tailor and communicate benefits and services to customers in a timely order. Virgin Atlantic highlighted the ways it helps their organisation, as listed below:* Administrat ion of Membership Records* Advertising* Marketing* Public Relations* Software Development* Testing* ResearchVirgin Atlantic stores the information collected from their frequent flyer program in many different transactional databases. They have a data mart called Genio, which helps them control their customer data.Genio extracts snapshots of the transactional system and copies them into an operational data store Genio reshapes the transactional data into structures and values that are fed into a multidimensional database to facilitate management reporting and analysis.Virgins OLTP database structureBMI have also been using Genio data warehousing since early 1998, which had then used Genio only to solve their specific organisational data problems. It was initially used to handle the exchange of data between BMIs Oracle and Essbase databases. It is used with numerous information systems to provide crucial data ageing solutions. It holds the corporate data accessible to many employees. (Cummings, 1999)Recently BMI has set a 10-year contract with Fujitsu in January 2006 to provide CRM applications including other IT services and products. They are likely to employ Siebel, CRM software.BA uses data warehouse in which databases are combined across an entire enterprise, where data marts focus on a particular subject or department. BA labels their data marts as dependent data marts, which are subsets of larger data warehouses. Here the companys relational database and transactional data are kept. However, other data, not used for decision support is also stored in data warehousing.This allows BAs marketers and analysts to manage customer communications and combine both operational and analytical customer management more efficiently.The FFP programme will be part of many other programmes within the data mart, please refer to Appendix 9 for further information.6.0 Operational and Analytical CRMThe initial information added on the FFP databases includes the data from the loyalty programme membership.4The Internet is an important communication median between FFP members who are able to use the site to check their mileage, rewards and earning opportunities as well as enrolling new members online. This strengthens brand awareness and helps to acquire new members for its customer retention program.Registered customers can receive account update, program information and special offers. The airlines respond quickly and appropriately, whilst providing their departments with the feedback needed to improve services.BAs Customer-enabled portal managed by SITA SC is where customers can book and manage their travel via its website. Important information is held for key customers and is used to identify groups of customers who are using the site so BA can market to other sectors. (SITA, 2005)Virgins website, allows passengers to reserve and pay for tickets online as well as gain destination information.5 EDS Air Transport Service Group ma intains SHARES, the reservation and booking engine of Virgin Airways.(Inside Panther, 2006)Blue Sky introduced in 2003 is BMIs e-enablement programme covering processes like e-ticketing, self-service check -in and online check-in.Research shows that Virgins online booking system lacks efficiency and good quality data e.g. a customer received a reminder email with incorrect flight details. (Tuck, 2006)When the automated check in service (ACI) is used to check in passengers with their loyalty card this can give insights in to their needs and wants. Most companies use this technique.ACI holds the following information:* The flight number* Passengers name* Seat number* Flying club number* Gender information* Baggage informationVirgin Atlantics customer recognition programme UNIQ, is linked to the ACI system so employees are able to identify passengers who require special treatment. This segmentation method is used for customers travelling on VAA routes.6The numbers of UNIQ customers are recorded by the premier service team on to the lotus notes database at London Heathrow. This is linked to the CRM database, Avenue,7 which incorporates the sales structure and analyses sales performance. Its used to plan the delivery of products and services that customers want.Once BAs raw operational data is fed in to the database it is cleaned using proprietary software and a single customer view is created as part of the CRM strategy to understand the customer behaviour.Additional variables added on the database include:8* Gender* Type of trip* Purpose of trip* Domestic/short European hop/long haul tripLife-stage, Lifestyle and Geo-demographics are used to support the primary data.Data exploration techniques are applied once the database has been cleaned; housed and enhanced, using a strategic communications plan.BAs bespoke value-behaviour segmentation model is used to understand and identify consumer relationships, this requires the customer information, including:* Number of flights they took* The flight destination* Length of trip* Seat Class* Number of people on the booking* Value of transactionBAs ICM and Teradata CRM supports email, direct mail, call centre and web channels, this technology supports e.g.* Online purchase, check in, and loyalty club registration* Value segmentation* Trend forecasting* Rapid campaign creation and implementation* Automated self service, using BAs CEBA (Customer-Enabled BA)* Personalised communication and customer service* Direct email campaign execution* Personalising website landing pagesIdentification of special events in the year is used to predict forecasts and how the FFP data would be used to compensate for unusual days and/or adverse weather conditions.Since 2005 Fujitsu has provided BMI with CRM software that generates an integrated view of journeys, profiles and behavioural trends so BMI can offer personalised services when used with loyalty cards.The illustration, over the page shows how operational data com municates within the FFP system to produce analytical CRM.Siebel (2005e)7.0 Data Quality and IntegrityTo ensure consistency and appropriateness of customer service BA carries health checks on their services to maintain valuable relationships with customers.DataFlux, BAs provider of data quality integration solutions, provides data profiling technology and provides an interface to uncover potentially problematic data (Cary, 2005)Virgin Atlantics software solution Business Objects provides an integrated BI platform that includes data integration, reporting, query and analysis, and performance management. (Business Objects, 2005)The companies update customer details by sending them an email asking them which information is out of date. This gives the customer the opportunity to update and correct current details they have.8.0 Touchpoint AnalysisTouchpoint is a means of contact between a customer and the company for any reason. Below is a generic diagram highlighting the touchpoint elem ents that airlines follow through the customer journey.(Siebel, 2005f)The FFP program is used to identify the customer value before targeting them with a combination of particular touchpoints. Database is used for direct marketing in the form of, emails, Mail, door drop around travel shops and local press and radio advertisingThe graphic highlights the main touchpoints used by the companies to communicate to the customers at the differing stages of their journey.(Siebel, 2005g)The illustration shows the touchpoints made by the companies to maintain loyalty. 9 (Siebel, 2005h)Viral campaigns are used by BA to increase customer reach and increase the number of opt-ins to the BA database and seat-sale awareness, e.g. Wimbledon sponsorships.The airlines also market to travel agents through trade publications and support sales team with promotions.Benefits from partner memberships are driven by passenger traffic that can be internalised from other carriers. This enhances operational perfo rmance and shapes the communication sent to customers.BMI has the advantage of full marketing corporation from Star alliance, with respect to the FFP. Research shows that BMI do not have an integrated common information technology platform to manage the alliances. There is lack of cross over information so different messages are sent to consumers because of the amount of knowledge about where the customer is within the customer journey stage.Virgin Atlantic and BA are part of bilateral groups as listed in Appendix 6-8.The extent to which the airlines hold consumer information depends on the amount of group-specific variables and member specific variables they hold, which shapes their communication accordingly.The purpose of the FFP is to keep customers and prevent them with flying with someone else. FFPs are designed to ensure customer loyalty by offering various forms of offers.9.0 Closed loop managementThe airlines try to retain their customers by keeping them in a closed loop, as shown below.(Siebel, 2005i)The example below is of BMI closed loop management.* They create loyalty promotion such as advertise the frequent flier program where passengers can earn miles and therefore benefits each time they fly* This is to encourage passengers to fly with them regularly, hence increasing loyalty* They create and execute marketing campaigns to raise awareness of their loyalty programs and any partnerships they have e.g. bmi are partners with hotels such as the Hilton hotels and car rentals such as Avis* BMI have a customer relations contacts team who deal with any queries or issue that passengers may have* All members transactions such as the number of flights they take and information about them is processed.* Results of their promotions are measured for example has sales increased after their campaigns or advertising* They manage Diamond Club, their frequent flier loyalty program* Member profiles are then tracked and analysed for patterns, similarities and diffe rences, as well as buying behaviours* Finally members are identified for targeted promotion, for example different types of people. As part of bmis FFP they have a high fliers section which is exclusively for PAs and secretaries organising business travel* The cycle continues and further loyalty promotions are createdBA and Virgin Atlantic operate in similar closed loop system.* They create a loyalty program which will attract passengers every time they fly with British Airways, they can earn BA miles to redeem rewards for flights* They encourage passengers to fly with them more, so that they are able to build high customer loyalty* BA creates marketing campaigns to increase the image and loyalty of the airline and their partnerships with Hotels like Marriot, Radisson and Starwood. They also have connections with One World Partners and Car Rental Services.* BAs aim within customer relations is to maintain a relationship with its customers after they have travelled, and ensure that t hey wish to travel with BA again* All members transaction of flights are now recorded and processed online so that customers can manage their account 24 hours a day* The outcome of promotional campaigns are measured after such success for example increase in sale figures* BA has a check-in online service which allows members of the executive club to access their frequent flyer program. This also gives them the opportunity to view their statement and claim missing BA miles* BA builds customer profiles so that they can track, update and record details on a regular basis. They also analyse buying behaviours.* They have fully trained and experienced professionals to respond to your comments and concerns about your experiences with the airline. They also provide other departments with the feedback they receive from customers so that they can improve their services to meet customers individual needs* Nevertheless, members are identified for targeted promotion in terms of different types o f people such as an On Business travel system. As a part of BAs corporate travel they have organised a strategy which will make your companys travel budget go further, by rewarding your company with On Business Points every time your employees travel with us.* Companies can save money by redeeming points for a range of travel products like reward flights, reward flight upgrades and Hotel accommodation. This service is open to a company with five or more travelling employees.* The Loyalty Marketing Lifecycle continues and more promotional activities are created10.0 ConclusionThe CRM not only depends on the database management but also the relationship management strategy and the contacts and communications. (AAI, 2001a)In reality there are many databases used by the companies which are interconnected, it is the ability of the system that can hold and help to translate the data in to useful meaning, which largely depends on the managers aptitude to use the system to its full potential .It requires cross-communication between the differing managers and staff working around the specific database. Each database is likely to have a specific objective for storing particular information e.g. check in system, inbound calls, promotions etc.Despite analysing each database the core activities surround the inter-relation of the information between these databases.Customer information is segmented in accordance with customer buying behaviour and location, which is important because of their geographically diverse operations.1 Please refer to Appendix 1 and 2 for graphical representation of CRMs importance within the airline industry and the increased focus on FFP as part of CRM strategy.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Professional Ethics Essay Sample

Professional Ethics Essay Sample Essay on Pofessional Ethics Providing a professional ethics application towards other party is a simple way of delivering a respectable process of valuing the rights of other individuals as well as groups. When we say professional ethics, this is the professional way of valuing the dignity and existence of other individuals or groups. This is an important structure because valuing the ethical principles and values make a person responsible and disciplined on a regular basis. In this case, the significance of essay has been efficient on delivering a high amount of trust and value towards others in a professional way. In this case, the relationship between individuals, groups, and organizations become stronger as they all value the importance of respecting their rights to promote their dignity on a regular basis. Application of professional ethics is usually observed at work because we all work for the betterment of the company or organization that we apply our skills and knowledge to the company or other people. Valuing the rights and the vision of the company makes us responsible because it is a way to respect the existence of the company or a group that we work with. As a professional, we value our interests and goals in life as we apply our skills and contribution to improve the performance of the company we work with. Respecting the rules and regulations are examples to prevent any ethical and legal consequences that might impact our professional and personal values. This is the reason companies have a very firm reason to apply all corners of regulations to employees, investors, and consumers so that the value of trust becomes efficient with their core values and interests. The importance of utilizing professional ethics is to consistently apply the significance of policies that impact our behaviors and relationship towards others. This is done when we are dealing with business partnerships that are essential to prevent conflicting interests of any activities that we apply or consider. When engaging a contract, respecting the statement of agreement paper aims to establish a common interest between two individuals or groups so that the flow of the activity is followed correctly. A contract of agreement or a statement of agreement is a professional way of adhering to the standards of the company by the involved individuals or parties. It shows how a certain business, service, or talent is being applied in the most professional way as possible through a written contract. Application of professional ethics is important because it applies the essentials of the law and respecting the policies of every involved party at all times. Being formal to every involvement to a business or a company implies that the person is fulfilling their responsibility as mandated by the involved party or the society as a whole. Valuing ethical responsibilities is an example on how a certain role is respected by an involved party so that any misconduct is prevented by employers or anyone who already made agreements with a certain party. One should realize that any conflicting interests such as violating the agreements that have already been signed will consider their professional contracts breached. This is because there are agreed terms that were not followed or having failed to accomplish tasks that are relevant to the scope of responsibilities that should have been applied by the involved party (Wager Williams, 2011). Reference Wager, Elizabeth Williams, Peter (2011). Why and how do journals retract articles? An analysis of Medline retractions 1988- 2008.  Journal of Medical Ethics.  37  (9): 567–570.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Affect Of Attitudes To Risk On Decision Outcomes Essay

Affect Of Attitudes To Risk On Decision Outcomes - Essay Example Individuals tend to take bigger risks if they have a big amount of wealth in their portfolio. Normally, where there is a high risk in an investment, it is probable that the payoff tends to be bigger, and where the risk is small, the payoffs tend to be smaller. Due to this reasons, individuals with massive wealth in their portfolio tend to be riskier so as to maximize their payoff. This type of individuals mostly is driven by their ambition to acquire more wealth in the future. Thus, they take a bigger risk in their investments because even if they lose out because of an unsuspected market condition, their wealth always cautions them and thus they have little to fear.Another individual factor that impacts the attitude on risk on the decision outcomes is the knowledge from the market that mostly is bought from the consulting and experts firms in the market. These firms gather, analyze and predict the future market condition and thus they can advise managers on the riskiness when undert aking certain projects and investments. Knowledge from the experts helps individuals to make informed and proper decisions that have a positive impact on the expected outcomes. Although the perfect information is costly, it saves a great deal as opposed to having no information at all. When one has the knowledge, he or she has power, and it is only right that he uses it for the betterment of his decisions and judgment.Another individual factor that affects the risk attitudes on decision outcomes is the earlier periods' outcomes.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression Essay

Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression - Essay Example This write-up will discuss events which contributed to this economic crisis and its consequences. The events that resulted in this calamity include poor economic policies, malpractices and increased tariffs (Ross 1998, p. 183). In the late 1920s, there were no adequate regulations which governed trading in America’s stock exchanges. Consequently, traders exploited these shortcomings to their benefit. Overall, the investors’ funds were vulnerable to unscrupulous traders. Unscrupulous trading in the stock market was one of the triggers of stock market failure. Subsequently, the values of shares began to plunge. The decrease in the value set off events in other industries, which culminated in this economic calamity. However, historians and economists argue that the decrease in the value of stocks in the market was not the cause, but a symptom of an impending economic calamity. Decreased market confidence resulted from the general failure in entities, poor policies such as increased taxation and dismal performance of other industries. According to economists, the collapse of markets denotes the final symptom of an eminent economic calamity. Although the collapse of the stock market may be a symptom rather than a cause, the resultant panic caused rapid deterioration of the economy in both America and the globe (Robbins 1971, p. 90). It is vital to realize that the great depression was a culmination of the coupling of various factors. Such factors included unfavourable tariffs. There was a general rise in the tariffs to finance the governmental operations. However, the higher taxes resulted in the government having more funds. During this period, governments undertook rearmament programmes. Subsequently, vital industries did not receive appropriate funding to stimulate the economy. Despite the imperialist policies adopted by nations, there were positive attributes from nations spending massively on defence programmes. Government globally were able to em ploy additional workforce. The massive defence expenditure did not improve the economy. Therefore, it denied the economy vital resources that would have improved nations further. The military ambitions were realized at the expense of the global economy (Lied 2002, p. 234). During this era, the international trade was not properly developed. Additionally, the emergence of global alliances hindered trade further. Globalization was inexistent; hence, economic panic due to failure of stock markets in America resulted in an economic calamity. If international trade had been properly developed, it would have mitigated the impact of the Great Depression. It would have provided optimism in the economic sectors globally. However, the existing global alliances, which pitted Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) against each other, only made the situation dire (Smiley 2002, p.153). Countries only traded in their alliances; thus, there was minimal business among nations such as the UK and Germany , which represented the global economic forces. Such enmity hindered trade among nations that would have mitigated the depression. Global politics had massive implications on the depression. Proper politics would have enacted measures that would have encouraged economic improvements. However, the political stands during this era resulted in further degradation of the economy (Klein 1947, p.157). The Great Depression was global; hence, there were numerous factors which triggered its occurrence. While the collapse of the

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Setting Vs Story - Dantes Inferno And Sartres No Exit Essay -- essays

This essay is on setting differences using the works of Dante's The Inferno and Jean Paul Sartre's No Exit.Adam looks about spotting all the important people that will influence the rest of his life. He takes a deep breath and prepares to make this his last and final addition to life. Quietly he draws back from the church as if to stop time, this moment may define him as a man. He turns to look at the priest as if to reply his answer, but suddenly he realizes the hand he is holding is as cold as death. Quickly he snaps back into reality recognizing he is not asking for his bride's hand in marriage, but burying her. Once again his mind tricked him into thinking that he was starting all over again with a new chance; however, as in life, sometimes there are no second chances.Dante's Inferno and Jean Paul Sartre's No Exit illustrate irony in setting in similar ways, such that there are no second chances in life. Both works take the readers into the minds of their authors where each author gives their interpretation of hell. Dante's and Jean Paul Sartre's works both have similar aspects of setting that are expressed in similar styles. Through symbolism, representation, and finite physical details each author establishesirony, yet also reinforces his theme. When Dante wrote The Inferno his mind thrived on the different levels of interpretation; likewise, Jean Paul Sartre's mind thrived on this, and he patterned No Exit after Dante's work. The symbolism expressed in Dante's Inferno correlates directly, in some cases, to the play written by Jean Paul Sartre, No Exit. Symbolism in both works cannot be defined by one level of thinking and neither can it be comprehended on one level. However, symbolism in relation to the setting of both works exhibits the nature of both writers to be very ironic in some cases. For example, throughout Dante's Inferno, Dante makes many direct references to the light and the heavens: "Therefore, if you win through this gloomy pass and climb again to see the heaven of stars when it rejoices to you . . ." (p. 145, l. 82 -5).These references, also made in No Exit, reveal the irony that none of the inhabitants of hell can ever see the light of God or, in Jean Paul Sartre's perspective, will always be reminded of the light and the choice they made: "Always broad daylight in my eyes- and in my head." (p.6) is another ... ... having his maincharacters seeing his version of hell in a hotel suite. This ironical atmosphere gives the readers exactly the reaction he wants, the idea that this could never be hell because the lack of flaming pits and pointy tailed devils. He uses this edge to surprise his readers into thinking that hell can be anyplace in the world it is he state of mind and punishment that makes it truly hell."What I was living, the same I now, dead"(p. 109, l. 66) stated Dante in his work The Inferno. The setting reinforces this theme that the irony of the sin committed will be the punishment received. Setting in both of these works expressed the ironical nature of both these writers and how they used this to give insight to their work. Through the symbolism, representation, and finite physical details Dante and Jean Paul Sartre both exhibited the essence of the meaning of irony. These various literary devicestransform a work of literatureinto a style with which readers can both identify and understand, yet also taking them to the next level. When setting can be interpreted ironically in many levels, something as simple as a few chairs and a table could represent Hell's Kitchen.

Friday, January 17, 2020

‘Macbeth’ by William Shakespeare Essay

Shakespeare wrote ‘Macbeth’ between 1603 and 1606 for King James 1st (England) and 6th (Scotland). It’s about a tale of royalty treachery heroes and witches. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1 the public were full of tales of witches and evil. Witchcraft was a subject that the English took very seriously. They believed that a witch had a third nipple under her arm. They burned women or threw them in lakes to see if they floated, if they did, they were sentenced to death. It is estimated that in Scotland between 1564 and 1603 eight thousand suspected witches were burned to death. These executions did not cease until the end of the seventeenth century. The sight of witches in an Elizabethan theatre would have been terrifying for the audience. For my English coursework on Macbeth I have chosen to look at act one scene one, two and three. This is due to the simple fact that it is the introduction to the play and indeed it sets the feel to the whole play In Shakespeare’s play, we open during a thunderstorm; this prepares us for the evil witches. Three witches come onto the stage: ‘When shall we three meet again In thunder, lightning, or in rain?’ The first witch asks what the setting shall be for their next meeting, thunder, lightning and rain conditions that most people would find frightening and would stay away from. The second witch says that they will meet: ‘When the hurlyburly’s done, When the battle’s lost and won.’ We then find out that they are going to meet on ‘the heath.’ They have insight into the future. The witches tell us that they are going to meet Macbeth. We do not know who Macbeth is or why the witches are meeting him, but we think that he must be evil because he is linked with the witches. Their familiars call to them and they disappear chanting: ‘Fair is foul, and foul is fair:’ This expresses the main themes in the play, the reversal of fortunes, and the fact that appearance can be deceptive. And we later see Macbeth is ‘fair’ in Duncan’s eyes but underneath he is ‘foul’, he will later betray Duncan. The opening scene is exactly thirteen lines long, thirteen is unlucky and in those times unlucky things were bad. So by this point the audience will have picked up that these are bad people. Scene two opens in a camp near the battlefield; King Duncan, Malcolm and Donalbain, his sons, and Lennox are present. They see a bleeding Captain and ask him how the battle is going. The Captain tells them how well Macbeth fights: ‘For brave Macbeth – well he deserves that name-†¦ Till he unseamed him from the nave to the chops, And fixed his head upon our battlements.’ This is portraying a picture of a tall and strong man who is highly regarded by the experienced fighters in the army. Duncan then praises Macbeth by calling him ‘O valiant cousin, worthy gentleman’ This presents us with a very different view of the main character, a relative of the king’s, well brought up, a courtier, but still highly regarded. The Captain then goes on to tell us of how Macbeth and Banquo responded to a fresh attack by the Norweyan lord, Sweno: ‘†¦they Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe. Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, Or to memorise another Golgotha, I cannot tell-‘ Macbeth and Banquo had fought back twice as hard as if they meant to kill every man there or to create a new burial ground, he could not tell. This shows how good and strong Macbeth is in battle. The Captain goes and Ross and Angus arrive. They tell Duncan that ‘Bellona’s bridegroom’ had won the battle. Macbeth had won and they were painting him as a god. They also tell Duncan that the Thane of Cawdor was a traitor’, Duncan decides to reward Macbeth by giving him the Thane of Cawdor’s title. This is ironic because Macbeth will become a traitor too. We now have two opinions of Macbeth, one evil Macbeth, linked to the witches, and one good Macbeth, a noble warrior who has fought well in battle to protect his country. The third scene is set on the heath, the witches are there, and telling each other what they have been doing since they last met. The first witch wants to put a spell on a sailor whose wife refused to give her chestnuts. She is going to toss his ship about and make sure that he does not sleep. This is reflected when Macbeth can not sleep later on in the play. The third witch shouts: ‘A drum, a drum! Macbeth doth come.’ They know that it is Macbeth, this too shows the witches’ insight. A drum is significant because it is a military symbol. We now meet Macbeth and Banquo. The first words Macbeth say are: ‘So fair and foul a day I have not seen.’ This reflects the words of the witches: ‘Fair is foul, and foul is fair.’ Which tells us that he is in tune with them and therefore in tune with evil. It is Macbeth who demands to hear what the witches have to say: ‘Speak, if you can: what are you?’ They acclaim him: ‘All hail Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! All hail Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor! All hail Macbeth! That shalt be king hereafter!’ Macbeth starts and Banquo asks him why. The witches have seen his thoughts and know his ambitions, he is afraid to hear that other people know his desires. Banquo asks them what the future holds for him and the witches reply: ‘Hail! Hail! Hail! Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. Not so happy, yet much happier. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none:’ Then they disappear again into the mist. Macbeth is not happy with the information he has received and demands that they stay and tell him how he is to become Thane of Cawdor and the king. The audience will now be itching to see if the latest predictions are true: after all, the previous have all now happened. Ross and Angus arrive on the scene, they have come from the king to award Macbeth with the title of the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth doesn’t know that the Thane has been sentenced to death for betraying the king: ‘The thane of Cawdor lives. why do you dress me In borrowed robes?’ Banquo is amazed that the witches are right: ‘What, can the devil speak true?’ Macbeth thinks to himself: ‘Glamis, and thane of Cawdor: The greatest is behind.’ He thinks that they are evil and will bring about Macbeth’s downfall: ‘And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, The instruments of darkness tell us truths, Win us with honest trifles, to betray’s In deepest consequence.’ Macbeth thinks about Banquo’s words and fights with his ambition and decides to let fate take its course: ‘If chance will have me king, why chance may crown me, Without my stir.’ In any screen version, ‘Macbeth on the Estate’, I expect a great warrior, respected by the king and fellow noblemen of Scotland. His best friend, Banquo is always by his side, and both dressed in armour coming from battle, with wounds. Macbeth should be about thirty-five to forty, he should be strong and masculine, as he has the strength to unseam a man: ‘†¦from the nave to the chops.’ I review now two modern interpretations of the play the first will be, ‘Macbeth on the Estate’ is set on the Ladywood Estate in Birmingham; this is the first difference between the screen version and the text. We open on a desolate estate, you can hear the wind, it is misty, dull, dark and grey. The high rise flats break the skyline. The ground is covered in mud and rubble, something used to be there but has been destroyed. A character comes on scene, he isn’t a witch, he is the Thane of Fife, Macduff. He is wearing a black tracksuit and speaks with a Jamaican accent, his words have rhythm. He tells us that what we are about to see, that Duncan is king and that he has become fat and lazy, he is no longer a good king. He tells us that there had been some problems and Duncan had told Macbeth to sort them out. The screen blacks and we see the title, when we return, we get a view from a smashed window, signifying violence. There is eerie music playing in the background, the estate is empty, abandoned. We get a clip of an alley, there are rats running around in it, this shows disease, dirt and decay. We then get a shot of a building, and a shot of another building with some children playing outside it, some men come along and they run away. The camera moves to the inside of a house, the door is kicked in and the men run into the house. The characters are introduced by freeze-frame the first man, the leader is Macbeth, he is wearing jeans and a dark jumper, this may suggest that he is evil. The other characters are introduced including Duncan, who is not at the battle. He is in a Public House; smoking and drinking, he is wearing a bright shirt, which is not buttoned, he is lazy and immoral, he is not as nice a king as Shakespeare’s Duncan. This makes Macbeth seem less evil when he kills him. The production is not about good fighting evil, it is about bad fighting worse. Shakespeare meant this as a morality play, however this is not a moral king and I feel that it makes me feel more sympathy for Macbeth when he betrays Duncan. The camera brings us back to the house, they are using pepper spray and baseball bats. The image is extremely violent. The television is switched on and Macbeth is distracted by it. The National Lottery is on, he seems drawn to it and is then disgusted by it and smashes the screen. Upstairs Malcolm and Macduff are fighting when they see the Thane of Cawdor, Malcolm jumps out the window Macduff is pushed down the stairs and they go back to tell Duncan. Macbeth comes up the stairs and gets trapped with Banquo. We go back to the Public House, where Malcolm and Macduff have just arrived Macduff keeps pushing Malcolm away. He tells Duncan of how the battle is progressing. This is the role of the Captain in the play. In the play we don’t see the battle, this shows us a more violent side to Macbeth, however it shows him as a warrior, not just a nobleman and a loving husband. We hear that Macbeth has won the battle and all the men are praising him. Duncan decides to reward Macbeth with the title the Thane of Cawdor, he sends men to kill the present Cawdor and deliver the message to Macbeth. We then have another extra scene, they drag Cawdor to a car. Three children, the witches, have just broken the window. Cawdor is shut in the car and Malcolm sets it alight. He takes his punishment and does not attempt to escape. A close up on his face shows his disclaim for the learning Malcolm I think that Macbeth would do the same, they are alike, they are both traitors. The camera then follows the black smoke upwards. The eerie music is still playing in the background. We see Macbeth and Banquo walking past a building, voices start to shout from windows and doorways. The voices get faster and come from all over the building. The camera follows the sound. Macbeth moves to go into the building, he seems drawn to it, Banquo tries to stop him but he walks in. They go up some stairs, Macbeth seems to be following something and leads Banquo under some low gaps in the wall to a room. They go in and the witches are standing there. There are candles and tarot cards in the room. They speak to him and he scorns them. The witches are not as frightening as Shakespeare’s witches are; they do not have the same effect. A car horn beeps and Banquo leaves, Macbeth lingers, again drawn to the evil, and keeps looking at them, walking backwards through the door. They walk out onto the balcony, Macduff and Ross are waiting in a car below, and they tell Macbeth that he is the new Thane of Cawdor and that the old Thane is dead. They get into the car to go to Duncan. We get a close-up of Macbeth in the car, he looks out of the window and thinks about all that has happened ‘if chance shall have me King, why chance may crown me Without my stir Ross is saying the porter’s speech; this scene is used after the murder of Duncan in the play. They reach the public house and again Macbeth is the first person to come through the door, he gives Duncan money and then starts a pretend fight with him. Duncan gives him his ring as a reward, he has a tattoo saying ‘love’ on his hand. I think that this shows that he is close to Macbeth. The scenes in the screen version are not in the same order as in the play. The actors are using Shakespearean language in a modern setting. I do not think that this works well. I think that the Macbeth on the screen reacts well with the witches, he is drawn to them. The screen version of Macbeth is not what I imagined him to be like; he is not a well-built man. Banquo is closer to my image of Macbeth. He does not seem to be in an army, whereas in the play there was a military tie with the drum. The fight seems to be a turf-war over drugs. Duncan is not as moral as Shakespeare made him, he smokes and drinks alcohol, he is not a good king. The setting is different, the scenes are not the same, and the morality aspect has changed. The screen version does not portray Macbeth as the tragic hero. He is not the Macbeth I expected to see. The second screen version I am going to look at is ‘Granada’, again I expected to see a great warrior, but now I am more curious after seeing the Macbeth on ‘Macbeth on the estate’. The ‘Granada’ version shows us an even more futuristic view of Macbeth but this time it uses actual warriors instead of vicious gangs of thugs, and they are actually fighting another country. We open on the wasteland with the witches. There are lots of bodies and old rubbish skips it looks as though there has been a battle fought here recently. We get a camera shot of the witches robbing the bodies anybody watching the scene can tell that these people are bad, evil almost as robbing the dead is frowned upon by anyone. The witches are dressed in rags and torn cloths they are grubby, they have rotten teeth and are wearing tacky plastic jewellery, They look like tramps. As they each say their lines we get a close up of each witch. ‘When shall we three meet again’ I can see a middle aged woman rushing to strip the riches of a dead body, when the witches are all finished talking to each other we see them running away from the bodies and disappearing into thin air. ‘there to meet with Macbeth’ Clutching watches in their hands. The camera then cuts a close up of Macbeth. This time Macbeth looks like I expected he looks strong, he looks like a warrior and he looks braver than the Macbeth we have seen from ‘Macbeth on the estate’. The camera cuts to scene two upon a hill in the country side with Duncan, Malcolm an Donalbain, Malcolms sons and Lennox standing talking, we are not told that is who they are but any one who has seen Macbeth before will know that this is who they are. With an explosion the Captain arrives war torn and bleeding, he staggers up the hill towards the group of man with his rifle slung over his back. His rifle is the currant issue weapon to the British Army so again it shows the modern aspect of the play. The Captain falls to the ground I front of the men, Duncan grabs hold of the Captain and shakes him. I can see that this Duncan is also more healthier than the king from ‘Macbeth on the estate’, he demands to know what is happening with the war and what about Macbeth. The Captain tells him that they have won the battle and that Macbeth has unseamed a mans body from his nave to his chops. The group all cheer at this they are all proud of their warrior Macbeth. Duncan then realises the Captain and orders someone to take a look at his wounds. Then with another explosion Angus and Ross appear they give the king the news of the Thane of Cawdor’s betrayal, king Duncan gives the order of the Thane to be killed and Macbeth to be given his title. They turn and leave down the hillside with their guns slung over their backs. The next scene begins in an original sort of way as Macbeth and Banquo riding down towards the wasteland on scramblers. This indeed is futuristic portrayal of the events, maybe the scramblers are there to represent the horses. They are now walking through the wasteland and spot the witches the viewers can now see that the witches’ predictions are true. Banquo spots them huddled around a fire and asks Macbeth what they are, Macbeth draws his gun and asks them to speak to him. They tell Macbeth his fortune and make paper crowns to symbolise the king, Macbeth is shocked by this and bites his nails, Banquo is questioning why Macbeth is worried and shocked by what the witches have to say. He then goes on to ask the witches what will become of him he seems happy. The witches then burn the crown in a nearby fire, they disappear in a star-trek like way again. Macbeth breaks out of his trance and calls for the witches to come back. I can see the power on his face he is almost annoyed that they are leaving it shows that he likes what they are saying. It’s like saying goodbye to all the things he has ever wished for. Almost as soon as the witches leave there is another gunshot as Ross and Angus arrive, Macbeth is told that he has become the thane, he still seems shaken by the witches and now he seems disturbed. He turns his back on Ross, Banquo and Angus, this is what he will go on to do later on in the play to betray all the ones he knows on his quest to be King. He has his gun pressed against his cheek, he likes the power of the gun it makes him feel power, something that he longs to have, and we can hear his thoughts ‘if chance will have me king, why chance may crown me, without my stir’ We can see instead of fighting everyone to become king he is waiting for chance to crown him, or make him king. He turns to his comrades and says ‘Till then enough – come now friends’ He calls them friends now but would he be calling them friends if he knew he was going to kill his best friend Banquo Out of the two screen versions I prefer this one it presents the Macbeth I think of when I read Shakespeare’s Macbeth. It shows good camera work to add to the effects. In this version the scenes are in the same order as the book unlike ‘Macbeth on the estate’ which muddles them around. I also think the witches are better portrayed as adults they seem more evil robbing the bodies. This Duncan is a good king I think this makes Macbeth seem even worse when he goes to kill him it shows that he is willing to kill good people to get where he wants to be. The war seems to be a proper war over land the way it would have been in Shakespeare’s time, not over drugs. This Screen version does portray Macbeth as the tragic hero I expected to see after first reading the book. Macbeth in both versions seems in a trance like state while the witches are around I think this is significant because the witches could be setting a spell on him.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Bipolar Disorder in the United States - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1288 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/07/31 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Bipolar Disorder Essay Did you like this example? Bipolar disorder is one of the top mental disorders that has impacted majority of the united states society. Psychologist know more about bipolar disorder because of so many outbreaks that have occured. According to Monica Ramirez Basco (2000) [b]ipolar I disorder (BPI) is a chronic and severe mental illness characterized by recurrent episodes of major depression and mania (p.287). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Bipolar Disorder in the United States" essay for you Create order Depression and mania are two of the main symptoms of bipolar disorder when trying to diagnose. Basco (2000) continues on There must be 3 additional manic symptoms occurring concurrently with a euphoric mood or 4 additional symptoms if the mood is irritable to qualify for a diagnosis of mania (pg.288). Bipolar disorder symptoms can be determined in many ways and can be triggered by many aspects in life Goodwin (2016) , onset can be particularly influenced by the stresses of late adolescence, but presentations occur throughout the lifespan with first episodes of mania (p.661). For bipolar disorder, there are many aspects that could cause the trigger of this disorder. According to Goodwin (2016), the onset and course of the disease are probably influenced by early life trauma, life events and alcohol and other drug use (p.661). Trauma from the past, a midlife crisis could cause this disease to finally surface and potentially disrupt day to day life.This disease can occur at any moment throughout life when it is finally triggered by a significant occurrence in life. Bipolar disorder has changed in the aspect the diagnostic criteria Severus Bauer (2013) notes, furthermore, in this chapter, there are now separate diagnostic criteria for manic-like phenomena associated with the use of substances (either substances of abuse or prescribed medications) or with medical conditions (p.1). The DSM-5 has modified bipolar disorder, given these changes, (Severus Bauer 2013) continues on to say, DSM-5 seems to concur with the idea that there has been an under-recognition of bipolar disorders (p.1). Between women and men there is not much of a difference between frequency of mood Difloria Jones (2013) describe the statistics amongst gender, using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis, Morgan et al. (2005) found that lifetime symptom profiles were similar for men and women, with the exception of the item dysphoria and depressed mood, which was more frequent in women (84.9%) than men (74.6%) (p.443). Dysphoria and depressed mood are understandable due to the fact that women have periods and other hormones that affect their mood. Whereas men they do not want to be seen as weak so they keep to themselves so there might be more men that are not accounted for due to this social norm. In other cases amongst children it is predominantly identified as Severus Bauer (2013) reports, The diagnosis is most often assigned to young patients presenting with a (first) major depressive episode (p.1). This is one thing that bipolar and bipolar II has the most in common is its onset symptom. The origin of bipolar disorder has been relevant for many years Tondo, Vazquez Baldessarini (2016) discuss how, early descriptions of what is now recognized as bipolar disorder (BD) date to ancient and medieval writers, and others through the 18th century [1, 2] (p.353). Bipolar disorder has been amongst the science of psychology for centuries and now (Tondo et al. 2016) beleived , the current concept of Bipolar Disorder emerged from MDI in the mid-20th century, based primarily on separation of illnesses with manic or hypomanic phases and depressions as well as conditions marked primarily with recurrent major depressive episodes [1, 6-8] (p.353). The topic of bipolar disorder has grown over the years with different phases and conditions to add onto what psychology continues to learn in this era. Sherman (2011) hypothesized, the evolution of an extreme, complex set of adaptations such as bipola r I disorder requires that strong selective pressures be exerted on a small homogeneous population over a long period of time, which in fact describes the circumstances of Neandertal during the Pleistocene (p.114). Sherman explains how bipolar disorder is a development biological modification when Neanderthals went through the first ice age their your bodies were in distress and triggers the disease. The treatment I chose for bipolar disorder is cognitive-behavior therapy. According to Basco (2000), the cognitive changes include changes in the thinking process as well as the content of these thoughts(p.288). While treating bipolar disorder this would be amongst the transformation that would be occurring while under this treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefited bipolar disorder (Basco 2000) compared to those assigned to receive standard clinical care, those in the CBT group were significantly less likely to have significant adherence problems, including being less likely to terminate lithium against medical advice (p.290). Cognitive-behavioral therapy has improved according to Basco (2000) they showed significant increases in time to first recurrence of mania (65 vs. 17 weeks) in th ose participating in the CBT intervention compared to subjects in the control group as well as a reduction in the number of manic episodes over an 18-month period (p.290). This treatment has shown in this study to improve the health of people with bipolar disorder as well as control their phases of each stage in this disorder. This will also improve the behavior over a shorter time period compared to others. Goodwin (2016) also suggest, naturalistic data strongly supplement data from clinical trials in supporting efficacy for lithium, valproate, carbamazepine and dopamine antagonists/partial agonists in long-term treatment (p.663). These supplements are supported to be used for long-term use. I chose the cognitive theory to help support and treat this bipolar disorder the most. The cognitive theory I believe could aid this disease because it is potentially working from the inside out. I took into consideration an article written by Windy Dydren (2011) about Albert Ellis and cognitive behavioral therapy. In the article Dryden (2011) explain how rational emotional behavioral therapy which is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy is broken down into mental thought, it follows from this that the negative emotions that stem from irrational beliefs (known as unhealthy negative emotions or UNEs) are qualitatively different from those that stem from rational beliefs (known as healthy negative emotions or HNEs) (p.213). Bipolar disorder involves an abundance of emotions that are positive and negative Dryden (2011) notes, other approaches to CBT tend to advocate a quantitative theory of emotions where the goal of intervention is to reduce the intensity of negative emotions and whe re no distinction is clearly made between UNEs and HNEs (p.213). Cognitive behavioral therapy in the aspect of the cognitive perspective can help understand what triggers people with bipolar disorders thoughts, and how we can restrain or decrease the unhealthy negative feelings according to Ellis. I think the cognitive theory is reteaching Jean Piagets cognitive theory Carey, Zaitchik, Bascandziev (2015) explain, Piagets body of work gave the field dozens of robust phenomena that suggest incommensurabilities, phenomena that captured the fields attention because children are locked into patterns of judgment that lead them to internal contradictions and are incoherent from the point of view of the later (adult) conceptual system (p.40) The habits you have as a child could continue on into adulthood which could bring on the symptoms of bipolar because of repressed emotion. This also leads to the mechanism we use as children carry on into adulthood Carey et al. (2015) explains Piaget offered, insights from cognitive science, including history and phi losophy of science, have allowed us to go well beyond equilibration of assimilation and accommodation as what we can say about the learning mechanisms underlying the construction of the adult conceptual repertoire (p.41). The bridge between child and adult cares many stages of learning which I think people with bipolar should learn to cope with negative thought and attitudes towards themselves. Bipolar disorder continues to develop and define itself even more as we research the reasons why it came to be and what we can do to relieve its symptoms.